PI studies

Selected documents (analyses, studies, papers) of „Parliamentary research services“ from V4 countries.

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Study_2.114_The Budget Bill 2020 - basic parameters
The study provides a summary and analysis of the most important parameters of the State Budget Bill for 2020. The first part is devoted to a summary of the basic parameters, government spending priorities and expenditure framework. The study also presents macroeconomic forecast on which revenue estimates in the draft budget are based on. The text also deals with the development of debt, deficit and related fiscal targets of the government. The main part of the study focuses on analysis of revenues and expenditures of the draft state budget for 2020 e.g. in comparison with the approved budget for 2019 or analysis of the expenditures of individual budget chapters.
state budget chapters, ministry,economic developmnent, prediction, defiicit, debt, expenditure revenues, capital expenditure 10.10.2019 cz Document
Study_2.113_Performance budgeting
The study deals with performance budgeting that represents budgeting focused on results. Performance budgeting can be described as a mechanism that links funding to measurable results, and systematically use performance information to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of public finances. Elements of performance budgeting and performance management have been implemented since the middle of the 20th century; however, PB gained more attention after the last economic crises when governments needed to focus on savings. PB is one of the principles of OECD good budgetary governance. Austria introduced performance budgeting as a part of a major reform of the budgetary process in 2009 and 2013. As part of the reform, the Parliamentary Budget Office (PBO) has been set up at parliamentary level in order to strengthen budgetary expertise to be able to help MPs in exercising their budgetary oversight function. Estonia is currently introducing PB within the framework of broader strategic planning reform. The Netherlands as well as Sweden are countries that had introduced PB in the last century and are constantly developing and modifying its budgeting system based on ex post evaluations of already introduces tools. On the contrary, Ireland introduced PB as a reaction to the recent economic crises. In Slovakia, ex post spending reviews are carried out by the Value for Money Unit at the Ministry of Finance.
performance budgeting, performance-based budgeting, performance indicators, performance of inforamtion accoungable 10.08.2019 cz Document
Study_5.388_Comparison of selected authorities regulating audiovisual media in the EU
Due to the changing media environment, whose change is connected mainly with digitization and the opportunities offered by new technologies, it is observed a trend of so-called convergence in the regulatory environment. The trend of convergence consists in connecting previously separated agendas, which due to changes becomes to be more inter-related, under the administration of one authority. In the case of converged authorities, they cover different areas ranging from telecommunications, transport, new technologies to media regulation. This paper offers an overview of selected regulatory authorities in the EU and their agendas ranging from authorities where several agendas were converged under one authority to the traditional model where authorities specialize only in the field of media. The paper presents basic information about the legal regulation of regulatory authorities by the European Union and the Council of Europe. Furthermore, the paper provide comparison of the extent of competence of selected regulatory authorities and ways of dealing with personnel issues (selection of persons to bodies of regulatory authority, duration of their mandate, methods of dismissal). The paper presents a basic description of the functioning of authorities, compares whether authorities grant licenses for radio and television broadcasting or if authorities control content in terms of principles of objectivity and plurality of broadcasting.
media; regulation; TV; radio; broadcasting 10.10.2019 cz Document
Study_1.244_Publication of Judgments - Regulation and Practice in EU Member States
This paper deals with the basic rules for the publication of court decisions in the EU countries. Anonymization of court decisions forms the part of the paper. Conclusion is that most countries recently reconstructed the praxis of publication of courts cases. However, the legislation is fragmented. Some states do not regulate the publication obligation at all or only regulate it fragmentarily. The highest courts and constitutional courts of most of the countries publish all cases in full version. Anonymization of participants do most of the countries. The anonymization of judges and public officials is obligatory only in the limited number of countries. Written collections have lost any importance, although in some cases the legislation requires them and continues to publish them.
court decisions, publication, anonymization, cases, databases 10.09.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic_4/2019_BAC tolerance compared to drivers, penalties and obligatory safety measures
A comparison of the maximum possible blood alcohol content (BAC) for cyclists suggests that most European countries tolerate the consumption of alcohol by cyclists, provided that they are able to drive safely. Otherwise, cyclists are subject to sanctions that vary from one country to another (fine, imprisonment, non-motorized vehicle driving ban, driving license withdrawal, points withdrawal). Mandatory safety bicycle equipment in all countries under comparison include bicycle lighting. Some countries also require a bell, reflectors, brakes, lock, reflective vest and protective helmet.
driver, alcohol, cyclist, tollerance 10.10.2019 cz Document
Study_5.378_Collective legal protection in selected EU member states
Member States proposes basic principles, which should guide Member States that decide to introduce systems of collective redress. A proposal for a directive on representative actions is currently undergoing deliberations on the EU level. The legal treatment of collective redress on the level of EU Member States differs in many respects. Divergence can be found e.g. in the areas of law in which one can benefit from collective redress depending on the respective Member State. These areas usually include investor protection, consumer protection, environmental protection or competition law. This being said, individual Member States usually allow for collective redress only in various subsets of the abovementioned areas of law. Further divergence exists with respect to claims that can be petitioned for in collective actions. In some Member States, the collective action can only ask to obtain a cease and desist order forbidding an entrepreneur to continue in an unlawful activity. Other Member States allow for related claims for damages, though. A further distinction can be drawn according to the entities allowed to file an action on behalf of a group of injured parties. Finally yet importantly, different approaches across Member States can be tracked in relation to the way injured parties become part of the group of applicants. Collective redress can rest either on the “opt-in” principle, where injured parties joint the group of applicants based on their own initiative, or on the “opt-out” principle, where the injured parties become part of the group of applicants automatically, unless they request to leave it. There are also Member States whose national law is based on a combination of these two approaches. The study also briefly describes questions of costs of proceedings, financing of collective redress by a third party and the distribution of the awarded damages between the injured parties.
collective legal protection,consumer protection,compensatory damages,dilatory action, representative action, collective action 10.02.2019 cz Document
Study_5.385_The constitutional and legal basis of the right to conduct a business in Vietnam in 2019
Right to do business in Vietnam is not supported by the constitution. The right is only partially admitted by the constitutional text. Its development is mainly ensured by the Civil Code, the Companies Act and the Investment Act. The thesis contains principles of the legal regulation and new upcoming legal regulation of the right to do business.
Constitutional Law; business; Vietnam 10.08.2019 cz Document
Study_5.386_EU Copyright Reform - The second Copyright Package
This study discusses the so-called second copyright package that was introduced by the Commission on 14 September 2016. The study comprises of a brief description of this legislative package and a more in-depth analysis of the directive on copyright and related rights in the Digital Single Market. This directive was adopted on 17 April 2019 and was a much-discussed part of the second copyright package. Special attention is paid to two specific provisions of the proposal for a directive on copyright in the Digital Single Market. The first provision concerns a proposal to newly establish an exclusive right related to copyright for press publishers while the second provision deals with a proposal to establish some new requirements for online content-sharing services providers. These two provisions were often considered contentious by experts during the deliberations on the proposal for a directive on copyright in the Digital Single Market.
Copyright; information society services; content sharing platforms; publishers rights 10.07.2019 cz Document
Study_5.387_Conflict of interest and its solution through a blind trust or similar institute
Blind trust is one of the solutions used for mitigation of the imminent conflict of interest of individuals who, by taking steps in management positions, typically in politics or public administration, could benefit their private business or investment. The blind trust serves to break the public official's control over his activities or investments, while significantly reducing the inflow of information to the public official about his business or investment during the exercise of the mandate. This comparative study aims to shed light on the principle of blind trust as an institute for the prevention of conflicts of interest and the limits of its use to fulfil this aim. The work focuses both on the regulation of the blind trust itself and on the regulation used in some EU Member States, which do regulate the blind trust, nevertheless the legislation serves to similar purposes.
Conflict of interest, trust fund 10.09.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic_3/2019_Preventive measures against the overpopulation of cats, protection of cats and dogs from illegal breeding and reproduction
The study deals with the issue of effective legal regulation control of cats and dogs populations and compares the existing legal approaches of selected EU Member States with the proposed legislative changes in the Czech Republic. The aim of these legislative changes is to prevent illegal practices in the area of reproduction and trafficking of cats and dogs. The study describes a framework strategy towards a unified approach in neutering of cats and towards a single register of cats and dogs in the EU.
sterilization, cats, overgrowth, castration, chipping, identification, registration 10.09.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic_2/2019_Protection of Creditors in Czech and German Succession Proceedings
nheritance proceedings; creditor protection; Czech Republic; Germany 10.08.2019 cz Document
Study_5.384_Affordable housing in Europe
This comparative study represents a compilation of several studies of the Parliamentary institute on housing policy. The study compares the concepts of affordable housing in eight European countries (France, Finland, the Netherlands, Slovakia, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany and Sweden). The study seeks to demonstrate a wide scope of social housing systems, ranging from affordable housing targeted on large scales of population (the Netherlands, Austria) to narrower social housing models (UK, Slovakia). The study focuses on social housing in a broad context, comprising financing of social housing, rent regulation and housing benefits. In addition, the study focuses on selected countries employing specific measures (either on national or on municipal level) to tackle the housing crisis issues present due to urbanization and other trends in many European cities. The study deals with following issues quotas on building affordable housing in big German and Austrian cities, planning obligations for developers in the UK, the tax on empty houses (the UK, France) and other measures applied in order to prevent "the phenomenon of empty apartments" and to motivate owners to return the apartments on the market (Netherlands, Germany, France). All this should give to a reader a comprehensive overview of housing situation in monitored countries.
Social housing, affordable housing, rent regulation, housing allowances, subsidies, housing policy, land development contracts, developers, empty flat tax, real estate tax 10.05.2019 cz Document
Study_2.111_Draft State Budget Act for 2018 - basic parameters
The study analyses the most important data contained in the State final account for 2018. The first part of the study summarizes the economic development in the Czech Republic, Europe and the global economy in 2018. The second part of the study describes and compares basic parameters and results of the state finances management in 2018. The core of the study is devoted to the analysis of revenues and expenditures of the state budget in 2018, both in comparison to the approved budget and to the results of the State final account in 2017.
state budget; state final account; revenues; expenditure; current expenditure; capital expenditure 10.05.2019 cz Document
Study_2.112_Sectoral taxation (in economic theory and practice)
The study deals with the issue of sectoral taxation. It begins with a short executive summary. The first part of the study is devoted to the sectoral taxation in economic theory. Sectoral taxation as such is not defined in the professional literature. The study therefore explains how the tax burden shifts depending on different supply and demand elasticity and in monopoly conditions. The second part of the study provides an overview of the approaches of selected EU countries to sectoral taxation. Currently, the most widespread form of sectoral tax is the banking tax, which, however, has more forms. In most cases, a tax/levy/charge is applied to create a special fund for helping failing banks. Another established type of sectoral tax is telecommunication tax, energy sector tax or a financial transaction tax. Nowadays, Hungary is a pioneer in sectoral taxation within the EU.
Sector taxes; bank tax; telecommunications tax; energy sector taxation; shifting the tax burden; tax on financial transactions 10.05.2019 cz Document
Study_1.243_The Petition Right and status of Petiton Laws in selected countries EU
The petiton right is a fundamental constitutional right. The petition is a request from citizens to resolve a matter of public interest. Legislation in the EU MS is either general (for all authorities), or for parliamentary petitions only. Recently there has been a renaissance of this right with regard to electronic submissions. The parliamentary procedure varies in detail in the groups parliaments. The work contains the texts of the laws in the original.
petition 10.02.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic_1/2019 Political Groups in European Parliament in Parliamentary Therms 2014 - 2019
In the European Parliament, its members organise themselves in political groups (fractions) based on their political views. The structure of these political groups is similar to the structure of parties and their parliamentary groups on the national level. They elect a president (two presidents, in some cases) and vice-presidents. Political groups in the European Parliament have to be distinguished from so-called European political parties. This study consists of two main parts. First, it describes the purpose and functioning of political groups in the light of the Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament and the status of European political parties and European political foundations. In the second part, the study contains a basic description of individual political groups in the European Parliament (2014-2019).
Fractiion, political party, European Parliament 10.04.2019 cz Document
Study_4.027_Climate Change and the Energy Union (recent development by the end of 2018)
This paper consists of two parts. Part one is focused on news in international climate change law and policy. This part deals with IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emissions pathways from October 2018 and with the 24th Conference of the Parties to the United Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP24) which was held in 2018 in Katowice, Poland. Part two of this text analyzes the Energy Union. In 2018 have been agreed important legislative acts setting the climate change targets for the EU for 2030 (renewable energy target and energy efficiency target accompanying the emissions reduction target). The European Parliament calls for increasing these targets. The European Commission by its communication from 2018 also opened a discussion about the target for emissions reduction for 2050. This paper also mentions the positions of the Committee on European Affairs of the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic.
Climate change, global worming, CO2 emissions, Energetic Union, Paris Agreement 10.02.2019 cz Document
Study_2.110_25 years of the Czech and Slovak economies
The study was prepared for the 25th anniversary of the establishment of the independent Czech Republic and Slovakia. The study analyses economic development of the countries based on economic indicators. It focuses mainly on macroeconomic indicators (GDP and inflation), labour market (unemployment, employment, and income), public budgets and monetary policy. It examines the convergence of the both economies and its pace.
Czechoslovakia division,economic comparison, The Czech Republic, The Slovak Republic, GDP, inflation, unemployment, exchange rate, monetary policy 10.01.2019 cz Document
Study_5.383_Cyberterrorism. The Essentials, Forms and Acts of Cyberterrorism, Cyber Safety, International Comparison
This research paper is devoted to the fundamentals of cyberterrorism and cyber safety. The first part describes the differences between cybercrime (as a concept of criminal law) and cyberterrorism or state-performed cyberattack with sufficient magnitude to constitute an act of war. Hybrid warfare is also discussed. Furthermore, this paper contains a list of the most frequently occurring types of cyberattacks and their manifestations through the recent past. The next part deals with the overview of cyber safety as a set of preventive and reactive measures against cyber events and incidents. In this context, the Czech Republic is ranked among the ten most prepared countries. For this reason, the Czech cyber security architecture is also more closely reflected in international comparison.
terorism, cybernetic, attack, incident, criminal law, legal status, overview, comparison, defensece, safety 10.01.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic_5/2019_Current Situation in Northern Syria
The idea of creating a "safe zone" in northern Syria in a wider context
Syria, Turkey, USA, Safe Zone 10.10.2019 cz Document
Study_1.238_Legal Regulation of Lobbying in Selected Countries
The purpose of this work is to describe an overview of the lobbying regulations in the countries that have adopted specialized lobbying legal regulation acts. To fulfil this purpose, the authors define and compare relevant legal terms such as the definition of lobbying, the definition of lobbyist and lobbied authorities, the register of lobbyists, the lobbying code of conduct, privileges and obligations for lobbyists and lobbied authorities in selected countries.
lobbying, legislative process, parliament, lobbyists retister 10.11.2019 cz Document
Study_5.389_Comparison of regulation on euthanasia and assisted suicide in selected states
The objective of this paper is to present up-to-date information on the legal regulation of euthanasia and assisted suicide. The introductory part of the paper contains an overview of the basic case law of the European Court of Human Rights in this area. Then the paper deals with a detailed analysis of the legislation in 11 selected (mostly European) countries. In addition to the presentation of the legislation in these countries, readers are provided with available statistical data on reported cases of active euthanasia or assisted suicide in the countries under review. Furthermore, the paper presents a comparison of legislation concerning doctors and medical workers with a focus on their possibility to refuse to perform euthanasia or to assist patients in ending their lives. Part of the paper also deals with the question of whether third-country patients and their relatives can travel to the countries where this procedure is allowed to end their lives. The paper also presents an overview of the legislation in EU countries where there are privileged types of criminal offences in Penal Codes of killing on demand and participating in suicide, which allows punishing offenders by mild punishments. The final part of this paper presents the basic overview of the legal regulation of active euthanasia or assisted suicide in all remaining jurisdictions that have not been covered in detail in this paper.
euthanasia, assisted suicide, doctor 12.10.2023 cz Document
Selected Topic_1/2020 Ban on preventing children from entry to restaurants and pubs
This research paper describes Czech law concerning limits to children free restaurants and pubs. In short, the establishment is prevented from banning children if it serves meals and it is opened during daytime. Conversely, pubs with no food available and opened during evenings only are possibly able to ban children. The paper also explains the logic of antidiscrimination law, including its origins in the US. There is a summary of current law regarding children-free restaurants in the US, Germany, UK and France.
discrimination;restaurant,children,age 10.01.2020 cz Document
Selected Topic_7/2019_General elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2018
The paper looks into the general elections at the state level in Bosnia and Herzegovina in October, 2018. Voters elected representatives of the lower House of Representatives of the state Parliamentary Assembly and also three members of the collective Head of State. After the general election, a lengthy process of government formation followed. Finally in December, 2019, the Parliamentary Assembly confirmed a new Prime Minister.
election; overview; Bosnia and Hercegovina 10.12.2019 cz Document
Selected Topic 6/2019_Political priorities in the area of migration and asylum: a new European Commission and Croatian Presidency in the first half of 2020
Political priorities in the area of migration and asylum: a new European Commission and Croatian Presidency in the first half of 2020 On 27 November 2019, the European Parliament's plenary approved a new European Commission, headed by Ursula von der Leyen, who in July, as a candidate for the post of President of the European Commission, presented political guidelines for the next European Commission, 2019-2024. From January 2020 onwards, at the Council level, Croatia will ensure the performance of the Presidency. In October 2019 Croatia presented the priorities of the Croatian Presidency's program. The direction of European migration policy basically follows the activities of the Juncker's European Commission. However, Ursula von der Leyen intends to submit a proposal for a New Pact for Migration and Asylum, which should address in particular the disagreements on the mandatory relocation mechanism in the Dublin Regulation. The design of this proposal is not yet known and should be presented in the first half of 2020. The V4 and Austria interior ministers consider such a proposal an excellent opportunity to reconsider existing policies, which should be based on consensus among all Member States without compulsory quotas or financial penalties.
migration;Ursula von der Leyen;European Commission; presidency; Croatia 10.12.2019 cz Document
Study_1.245_Ombudsman for Children
In the EU Member States, Iceland and Norway The Office of the Ombudsman for Children is an independent institution whose competence is the supervision of the state and other institutions in the field of childcare. Another function of children's ombudsmen is participation in the policy in the field of childcare. The function comprises also methodological and professional assistance to public authorities and governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The study identifies differences between EU countries in access to independent supervision of childcare, examines the powers of children's ombudsmen. The conclusion of the study summarizes the experience with the various types of ombudsmen.
ombudsman;Convention on the Rights of the Child; immigrants rights, cyberbullying 10.12.2019 cz Document
Study_5.390_Legal regulation of names and surnames in the selected EU countries
The study compares legal regulation of names and surnames in the selected EU countries. The countries were selected to represent stricter as well as less stringent and broader approach. The legal regulation of names and surnames in the Czech Republic is rather strict one. The study deals with the regulation of the name (first name) that parents can give to their child. Furthermore, it deals with the issue of gender neutral names. Although, in most of the countries, names are not conditioned by the gender. In general, children have surnames of their parents. In most of the countries, it is possible to give a child surname created from the combination of both of its parent’s surnames. In Slovenia and England, it is possible to give a child any surname parents want. The study also compares the legal regulation of the change of the surname after the marriage.
name; surname; birth name; double name; neutral name; surname after marriage 10.12.2019 cz Document
Study_5.391_Open data: Benefits, evaluation tools, basic regulatory information and subjects obligated to provide open data in selected countries
The paper focuses on the phenomenon of open data publishing, which is structured information gathered by public administration, which is published in a form that allows its further use by the population and the private sector. In the introductory part of the paper, the benefits of data opening and principles explaining how open data should look like is summarized. Moreover, the paper offers a comparison of the best-known indexes, which measure the use of open data published by public administration by country in the world. The second part of the paper presents a comparison of the situation in selected countries of the world, focusing on the identification of relevant legislation and entities that are obliged to provide open data. Among other things, the European Union legislation in this area is presented, which affects the legal environment throughout in all selected countries.
data; electronic form; information, innovation, online; transparency 10.01.2020 cz Document
Comparative analysis No. 01/2020_Comparison of legislation regulating parental equality and Parental Alienation Syndrome in selected countries
The paper compares the legal regulation of equality of parental rights in Slovakia and selected countries of the European Union, European Free Trade Association and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. While general regulations of parents’ rights and obligations are similar to the Slovak legislation, some countries have more detailed scope of specific rights. This is particularly valid in terms of the right of parents to communicate with a child, right for personal meetings, right for information and right for joint decision-making on important issues. None of the analysed countries included “Parental Alienation Syndrome” into their legislation. Comparably to Slovakia, state institutions do not recognize it as the official diagnosis.
family, family law, parental rights, parental equality, Parental Alienation Syndrome 17.02.2020 sk Document
Comparative analysis No. 02/2020_Post-election formation of the Government in Slovakia and selected EU Member States
The paper focuses on analysis of the process of Government formation after parliamentary elections, from a political and legal point of view. In addition to Slovakia, the comparative analysis deals also with the formation of Governments in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Greece, Slovenia, Croatia, Poland and Sweden.
parliamentary elections, formation of the Government, appointment of the Government, role of the Parliament and head of state, Government, Prime Minister 19.03.2020 sk Document
Comparative analysis No. 03/2020_Selected institutes of the parliamentary Constituent Sessions – historical and international comparison
The paper provides an analysis of the process of convening, managing, as well as the course of the Constituent Session of the Parliament from a historical point of view since 1918. The comparative analysis contains also an international comparison of this institute in V 4 countries.
Constituent Session, taking the pledge, election of parliamentary bodies 19.03.2020 sk Document
Comparative analysis No. 04/2020_Measures to combat socio-economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in selected countries
The comparative analysis provides an overview of the measures adopted to combat the socio-economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic at the EU level and in selected EU Member States.
pandemic, COVID-19, coronavirus, socio-economic measures, EU 16.04.2020 sk Document
Comparative analysis No. 05/2020_Gender quotas in national parliamentary elections: from equal opportunities to equal results?
The comparative analysis is devoted to the concept of gender quotas in the national parliamentary elections as a tool of public policy, which aims to increase the representation of women in political structures. Specific attention is paid to arguments in their favor as well as to their disadvantages, effectiveness, forms and a wider social impact. It also provides an overview of established quotas in selected European countries and discusses the political representation of women and possibility of electoral gender quotas in Slovakia.
gender quotas, equality, Parliament, electoral system 29.04.2020 sk Document
Comparative analysis No. 06/2020_Schedule of reopening of educational institutions as a part of easing of restrictions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic
The comparative analysis provides a brief overview of various stages of gradual reopening of pre-school and school facilities in selected countries, in connection with easing of measures against spread of the COVID-19.
COVID-19, education, preschool and school facilities 29.04.2020 sk Document
Comparative analysis No. 07/2020_Update on measures adopted to combat the socio-economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in selected countries
The paper provides an updated overview of the measures adopted to combat the socio-economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic at the EU level and in selected EU Member States.
pandemic, COVID-19, coronavirus, socio-economic measures, EU 15.05.2020 sk Document
Comparative analysis No. 08/2020_Easing of measures against spread of the COVID-19 – “exit strategies” in selected countries
The paper provides a brief overview of strategies of selected European countries in the area of loosening measures adopted in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.
pandemic, COVID-19, preventive measures, exit strategy 15.05.2020 sk Document
Comparative analysis No. 09/2020_ Comparison of legislation on seasonal employment in agriculture and food industry before and during the COVID-19 pandemic
Comparative analysis is focused on comparison of the legislative measures concerning seasonal employment in agriculture and food industry before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in selected countries. Due to precautionary measures to prevent the COVID-19 outbreak, the national borders were temporary closed, thus the seasonal workers migration was limited. Because of this exceptional situation, there is a risk that farmers would not be able to harvest their crops. The paper brings an overview of the legislative changes, incentives and other related measures adopted in analysed countries to mitigate the above-mentioned side effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
seasonal employment, agriculture, food industry, COVID-19 pandemic 28.05.2020 sk Document
Comparative analysis No. 10/2020_Parliamentary Rules of Procedure amendments and remote meetings of Parliaments and their bodies due to the COVID-19 pandemic
The comparative analysis provides an overview of the parliamentary Rules of Procedure amendments and other related measures enabling Parliaments or their working bodies to hold remote meetings in selected countries and the European Parliament.
Rules of Procedure, remote meetings, COVID-19 pandemic 01.06.2020 sk Document
Comparative analysis No. 11/2020_ Selected aspects of appointment and dismissal of Prosecutors General
The paper compares the legal regulation of qualification requirements for the position of General Prosecutor. The analysis maps the practices of ten EU Member States: Austria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland and Slovenia. The primary attributes for examination were five research questions concerning the method of election, elements of public control, qualifications, entities authorized to nominate candidates for the General Prosecutor and conditions for dismissal from the position of General Prosecutor. In addition, the comparative analysis provides a brief overview of the legislation and practices regarding these indicators in other EU Member States and the United Kingdom. The results of the comparative analysis point out to differences in comparison with the Slovak Republic. The analysis reflects on the recommendations and opinions of the Venice Commission in the present case, which can serve as a basis for further decisions on the application and form of selection of the Chief Prosecutor.
Prosecutor General, prosecutor, election, dismissal, Parliament, Government 01.06.2020 sk Document
Selected Topic_5/2020_Conference on the future of Europe
"I want Europeans to build the future of our Union. They should play a leading and active part in setting our priorities and our level of ambition. I want citizens to have their say at a Conference on the Future of Europe, to start in 2020 and run for two years," stated Ursula von der Leyen, President of the European Commission in her speech “A Union that strives for more – My agenda for Europe” at the European Parliament on 16 July 2019. The paper summarizes the on-going debate on preparation of the Conference, positions of the key EU institutions and of the Nationals Parliaments (including the Parliament of the Czech Republic).
European Unin, EU, European Commission, European Parliament, Council 10.02.2020 cz Document
Study_5.392_State part of school leaving-examination and admission requirements for universities in selected countries EU
This study reviews the way of secondary school graduation and conditions necessary for continuing studies at university. In all described countries upper secondary education is completed with a school-leaving examination whose part is called „the state part of school-leaving examination“ and is conducted centralized within the country and according to the same rules. In Finland it is carried out in a digital form on computer-based testing, in France the exam is divided into two parts during a two-year study, in Germany students pass central examinations on the level of the States (Länder), in Poland, Austria and Slovakia the state part of school-leaving examination consists of national written examinations. In all described countries, except for universities in Finland and Elité Colleges in France, the results (marks) of the school leaving-examinations replace an admission system conducted by universities. However admission requirements for the most popular study area is up to the university management itself to decide. the state part of school-leaving examinatio; admission system; secondary schools; the way of secondary school graduation
the state school leaving examination, high school entrance examination, way of graduation, 10.01.2020 cz Document
Study_2.115_Digital Services Tax
After the efforts to find a common solution to taxing the digital economy at the European level have failed, many European states have started to prepare national legislation implementing digital taxation aimed at multinational digital services providers not based in that country. France, Italy and Austria have thus adopted a digital services act (DST). Some countries already presented their proposals, others are discussing it and others are against it. However, all countries agree that the joint action within the OECD or the EU would be the best solution. The study provides an overview of the development of negotiations regarding the digital taxation within the OECD, at the EU level as well as in individual European countries, which have already introduced the DST or put forward concrete proposal. DST; digital taxation; Digital Services Tax; GAFA
DST; digital taxation; Digital Services Tax; GAFA 10.02.2020 cz Document
Study_5.393_Civil Enforcement of Court Decisions by Deductions from Income in a European Comparative Perspective
First, this study deals with the broad notion of debtors’ access to a body enforcing a court decision and. Second, it compares the relevant rules on enforcement by deductions from income in Germany, Slovakia, Poland, England and Wales, France, Hungary and Slovenia. In its first part, the study concludes that the human rights of the debtors require them to be able to legally challenge the steps taken by the enforcing body. Concerning the question of the debtors’ factual access, a possibility to contact the enforcing body to reach an informal arrangement does follow from certain pieces of Union legislation. This does not have legal procedural implications on its own, though. The second part of the study concludes that there is a significant overlap between the compared sets of rules on deductions from income as concerns the fact that nett income is subject to deductions (with differences in the kinds of income that can be subject to enforcement) or the determination of the maximum amount of deductions. Significant differences can be found in the relative severity of the rules on deductions.
enforcement; enforcement of judgments; deductions from income; court bailiff; right of access to court; right to a fair trial 10.01.2020 cz Document
Selected Topic_13/2020_Kurzarbeit in the Czech Republic in the context of the pandemic COVID - 19
A short analytical study concerning the conditions of the Kurzarbeit scheme in the Czech Republic. The study focuses in particular on new measures of kurzarbeit, which are included in the MLSA „Antivirus“ program. Antivirus measures are also examined in the light of current European Commission communications on state aid.
covid-19;Kurzarbeit;partial unemployment 10.04.2020 cz Document
Selected Topic_12/2020_Declaration of the State of Emergency in March 2020, Measures of Government and Ministry of Health Care
The selected topic deals with emergency regimes in the Czech legal system, which respond to the impending internal danger. In connection with the coronavirus crisis in the Czech Republic, the state of emergency declared by the government in March 2020 is described in detail. Potential impacts of this declaration are classified according to applicable legislation (Constitutional Act on Security of the Czech Republic, Crisis Act, Integrated Rescue System Act, Public Health Protection Act) . For each aspect, the legal steps taken so far are listed (government decisions, measures of ministries). The paper also takes into account the possibility of restricting of human rights on the basis of emergency legislation.
state of emergency; restrictiion, human rights 10.04.2020 cz Document
Selected Topic_11/2020_Overview of measures to mitigate the socio-economic effects of covid-19
Measures taken by the governments of the affected countries (including measures at European level)
Economic Crisis; coronavirus crisis; Covid-19; economic measures 10.05.2020 cz Document
Selected Topic_10/2020_Coordinated EU economic response to coronavirus covid-19 and measures taken by the Czech government - update (Reactions at the EU level, economic measures of the Czech government and reactions of central banks)
The text focuses on the European Commission Communication on a coordinated EU response to the COVID-19 outbreak. It describes the content of the document as well as related economic measures proposed by the Commission. The text also outlines the Czech government’s position concerning these measures. Furthermore, it presents the economic measures already proposed by the Czech government. Finally, it also contains the reaction of central banks – the ECB and the CNB.
economic reaction EU; covid-19;coronavirus;coronavirus crisis 10.04.2020 cz Document
Selected Topic_9/2020_Political Groups in the Post-Brexit European Parliament
This study describes the European Parliament and its composition after the United Kingdom left the EU. The study describes the mandate and immunity of the Members of the European Parliament in the light of recent case law. It further compares European political parties with political groups. The former are most relevant for party pan-European organisation and financing, while the latter is relevant for procedures within the European Parliament as such. After summarising the results of the last parliamentary elections in May 2019 and the shifts in relative power after Brexit, the study goes on to describe the individual political groups currently active in the European Parliament. Lastly, the study offers an overview of Czech participation in the European Parliament and its committees.
political group; European Parliament; European political party; Brexit 10.03.2020 cz Document
Selected Topic_8/2020_The situation at the Greek-Turkish border Overview of events during the period 27 February — 18 March 2020
At the end of February there was a significant increase in the number of migrants at the Greek-Turkish border, with more than 13 000 migrants estimated. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has openly stated that he will no longer prevent migrants from entering Europe. The Greek Government has subsequently announced that it will not receive any applications for international protection for one month and has invoked Article 78(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU on temporary measures in the event of a migration crisis. Since the start of the conflict in Syria, Turkey hosts 3,6 million Syrian refugees and in March 2016 concluded an agreement with the EU to prevent the influx of migrants and refugees into Europe. In return, the EU sends funds to Turkey to support Syrian refugees under the Facility for Refugees and promised to accelerate visa liberalisation and accession negotiations. Erdoğan is critical of the implementation of the agreement, and calls for further funds, and of the lack of EU military engagement in Syria. In the ongoing negotiations, EU leaders with the Turkish President agreed that the 2016 EU-Turkey statement continues to be valid, but Turkey requests an update and wishes to reach agreement before the European Council held on 26 - 27 March to discuss it by European leaders. In response to the situation in Greece, the European Commission has presented an action plan for immediate measures to help Greece. It includes, in particular, the provision by Member States of personnel and equipment for the purposes of two Frontex Rapid Border Intervention Operations, EUR 700 million in financial assistance, support under the Civil Protection Mechanism (health teams and equipment, shelters, etc.) and the provision of 160 asylum experts. Furthermore, Ms Ylva Johansson, Commissioner for Home Affairs, invited Member States to relocate 1 600 children from Greek camps and offered 5 000 voluntary returns with financial assistance for reintegration in the country of origin for an amount of EUR 2 000. In the context of the coronavirus pandemic, the Greek government introduced restrictive measures in Greek camps, but security and hygiene are poor. The 30-day restriction adopted by the European Council for entry via the external border is not applicable to persons in need of international protection. There are also criticisms from Turkey and human rights organisations on the treatment of migrants at borders and use of violence against them and the lack of access to the asylum procedure.
Migration; asylum; refugee; Greece; Turkey; EU-Turkey statement; Syria; external frontiers; Rada JHA; FAC Council; European Commission; European Parliament; relocation; Frontex 10.03.2020 cz Document
Selected Topic_7/2020_Economic impacts of SARS in 2003 (following the example of Hong Kong)
This paper shows the economic impact of SARS on the Hong Kong economy, which is one of the four most affected areas: Hong Kong, China, Singapore and Taiwan. It analyses the impact on GDP, unemployment and tourism. The decline in GDP caused by restrictive measures was obvious, but in a very short period. Economies were able to relaunch quickly.
SARS;economic impact;epidemic;Hongkong,disease 10.03.2020 cz Document